The Automated single ring infiltrometer, or Wooding infiltrometer, is used to determine the infiltration rate at saturation, and/or the saturated hydraulic conductivity of field soils, as well as of soils in laboratory columns.
With the Wooding infiltrometer, water at atmospheric pressure is allowed to infiltrate into soil. Water is held inside a 15 cm diameter soil ring, pushed less than 0.5 cm deep into the soil. The infiltrometer is placed on top of the ring, and used to maintain a head of water of 1 cm inside the soil ring. As water infiltrates the soil, the water level in the infiltrometer tower decreases. This decrease in water level with time is recorded, either with a pressure transducer connected to a data logger or manually. From these data the volume of water entering the soil in a given time is calculated. This information is then used to compute the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil. The infiltrometer can be used in the field and on top of soil columns.
Good for teaching soil-water movement, using an optional 15 cm ID soil column and water content sensors and/or tensiometers.
|Inside diameter of water tower||7.6 cm|
|Height of water tower||78 cm|
|Volume of water tower||3800 ml|
|Inside diameter of priming tower||2.5 cm|
|Inside diameter of soil ring||15 cm|
|Inside diameter of optional soil column||15 cm|
|Height of optional soil column||30cm|
The automated single ring can also be used in the laboratory in conjunction with 15 cm inside diameter soil columns. No other soil ring is necessary. The infiltrometer is simply set on top of a 15 cm plastic or steel cylinder, which is filled with soil as shown in the figure. The cylinder is filled with soil till 3.5 cm from the top. When all is ready, open the clamp on the priming tower, and water starts to fill the space below the infiltrometer inside the soil ring, and then enters the soil. The rate of infiltration of water into the soil is highest just after starting the infiltration and declines over time. After some time the infiltration rate changes little, and appears constant. The “final” rate of infiltration then equals to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil in the column.
To measure the advance of the wetting front (which can also be observed and measured directly if clear plastic is used for the soil cylinder), tensiometers (available from SMS) and other moisture sensing devices can be added through the wall of the soil cylinder.
The output from the pressure transducer on top of the infiltrometer, along with the output from the various moisture sensing devices (if applicable) can be recorded with a datalogger for later transfer to a PC.
For soil columns having an inside diameter of 15 cm, water flow is one-dimensional. However, because the cross sectional area of the water tower (45.4 cm2) is smaller than the cross sectional area of the soil column (176.7 cm2) a 1 cm drop in the water level in the water tower causes a 0.257 cm depth of infiltration. Thus, to get the final infiltration rate, one has to multiply the drop in water level in the water tower (observed during the later part of the measurements in a given time period) by 0.257 to get the final infiltration rate.
In the field, water flow out of the soil ring is three dimensional, and thus additional information is needed to calculate the hydraulic conductivity. We use the solution Wooding developed for 3-D infiltration from a circular ponded area, and further assume that initially cumulative infiltration is proportional to the square root of time. Initial and final water contents of the soil in the ring also need to be measured. The infiltration data and water content data are then entered into Wooding’s equation to get the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil.
The method itself and the data analyses are straightforward. However, in actual practice the method greatly benefits from continuous data collection with a datalogger. Suitable data loggers are available from Soil Measurement Systems.